вторник, 23 августа 2016 г.

საქართველოს საგარეო ურთიერთობები თემურ ლენგის შემოსევების დროს


XIV s. 80-iani wlebidan iwyeba saqarTvelos gansakuTrebiT tragikuli periodi. Temurlengma mravali qveyana gaanadgura. ubedurebam saqarTvelosac uwia. 1386-1403 wlebSi Temuris urdoebma mravalgzis dalaSqres saqarTvelo, rasac Tan axlda arnaxuli sisastike da aoxreba.
Temurlengis Semosevebma waruSleli kvali daaCnia saqarTvelos Semdgom politikursa da socialur-ekonomikur ganviTarebas: ekonomika moiSala, mosaxleoba Semcirda, qveyana politikurad dasustda. magram Temurma mainc ver SesZlo qarTveli xalxis damorCileba. isini mrisxane dampyroblisadmi qedis moxras ki ar fiqrobdnen, aramed yovel xelsayrel viTarebas iyenebdnen, raTa aRedginaT sakmaod Selaxuli saerTaSoriso poziciebi da am mizniT aqtiur sagareo politikasac ki atarebdnen. qarT velTa aseT moqmedebaze metyvelebs Tundac Cvens istoriografiaSi kargad cnobili alinjis magaliTi, romlis Sesaxeb damatebiTi oride sayuradRebo cnoba dagvitova germanelma hans Siltbergerma1.
Siltbergeri mogviTxrobs Temurlengis mier babilonis (baRdadi) aRebas da misi mosaxleobisadmi Cveuli simkacriT mopyrobis ambavs da gangrZobs: Temuri `Semdeg wavida erTi cixis dasapyrobad, romelic wyalSi idga. daaSro wyali da fskerze ipova tyviis sami skivri, romlebic savse iyo oqroTi. is skivrebi mefem daamalvina, raTa Tu cixe iqneboda aRebuli, oqro gadarCeniliyo2. amoiRo Temurma skivrebi, Semdeg aiRo cixe, sadac 15 damcveli iyo da brZana maTi CamoxrCoba. cixeSic ipova kidev ori skivri, romlebic savse iyo vercxliTa da oqroTi. isinic Tan waiRo~.
Siltbergerma alinjis dasaxasiaTeblad yvelaze mniSvnelovnad (maSin, roca iranis sxva adgilebs klimatis, nayofierebis, xelosnobisa da sxva niSnebis mixedviT axasiaTebs) miiCnia is didi winaaRmdegoba, rac mas Temur lengisaTvis gauwevia 16 wlis ganmavlobaSi3.
alinjis Sesaxeb cnobebi, gansakuTrebiT Tu isini XIV s. dasarulsa da XV s. dasawyisis ambebs exeba, sainteresoa imdenad, ramdenac am cixesTan dakavSirebulia aRniSnuli periodSi qarTvelTa mamacobis erT-erTi sayuradRebo momenti. Temurlengis mier alinjis cixis aReba da auracxeli ganZis xelSi Cagdeba, 1401 wlis ambavs unda asaxavdes, romlis mxilveli Siltbergeri ar yofila, magram mas Semdeg rac igi 1402 wels, Temuris tyveobaSi mox vda, saSualeba eqneboda, aRniSnuli cnobebi uSualod cixis dampyrobelebisagan moepovebina.
gansakuTrebiT sayuradReboa is cnoba, sadac alinjis cixis damcvelebis mier mtrisaTvis 16 wlis ganmavlobaSi gaweul winaaRmdegobazea gadmocemuli. rodesac komentars  ukeTebda Siltbergeris am cnobas f. bruni mas saeWvod miiCnevda. f. bruns eWvis gamoTqmis safuZvels aZlevda pirvel rigSi is, rom araviTari sabuTi ar moipoveboda, romelSic raime iqneboda naTqvami alyis aseTi xangrZlivobis Sesaxeb. da meorec, igi eyrdnoboda sxva avtorebis da maT Soris m. broses wignSi arsebul cnobebsac. m. broses naSromSi naTqvamia, rom 1393 wels qarTvelebma taxiri gaaTavisufles alinjis cixidan. aqedan gamomdinare f. brunma ivarauda: SeiZleba imaT, visganac Siltbergerma es ambavi gaigo, dro gaaorkeces da Teqvsmet weliwads imitom ambobso.
aseTi mosazreba swori ar aris, radgan m. broses naTqvamidan, sxva azris gamotana ufro SeiZleba. ai ras ambobs m. brose: `taxirma, baRdadis mflobelis ahmedis Svilma, hulaRu-yaenis STamomavalma, ro melic gandevnes Tavisi dedaqalaqida 1393 w., Tavi Seafara alinjayis cixeSi, sadac is didxans ver Seipyra Temurma. იბerielebma amiT isargebles da wavidnen taxiris Sesawevnelad, daamarcxes TaTrebi da aiZules isini cixes Semo clodnen, xolo taxiri Tan wamoiyvanes~.
amonarididan Cans, rom Temuri alinjas arc 1393 wels flobda. winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi igi taxirisaTvis TavSesafrad ar gamodgeboda, gamodis, rom is taxirs adreve ekuTvnoda. yuradReba unda mieqces im adgilsac, sadac m. rose ambobs: taxirma `1393 w. Tavi Seafara alinjayis cixeSi, sadac is didxans ver Seipyra Temurma~. amgvarad, gamodis, rom arc erT SemTxvevaSi ar rCeba welTa is raodenoba, romlis gaorkeceba 16 wels mogvcemda.
davubrundeT Temuris mier alinjis alyis Semortymisa da mecixovneTagan gaweuli winaaRmdegobis ambavs. alinja Temurs didi xnis ganmavlobaSi winaaRmdegobas uwevda. man daipyro azerbaijanis didi nawili da miadga alinjas. roca pirdapiri ieriSiT ver aiRo, alyaSemortymuli datova. klavixo ase gadmogvcems am epizods: `roca Tamurbekma sparseTis sulTanze, romelsac amads uwodebdnen, gaimarjva da misi miwebi daipyro, is (ahmed jalairi) am cixe alinjaSi daimala. Tamurbeks igi da misi xalxi sam wels hyavda al yaSi, Semdeg is babilonis sulTanTan gaiqca, sadac dResac imyofeba~.
klavixos cnobas, Temurma cixe rom ver aiRo, adasturebs sparseli istorikosi Saraf ad-din ali iezdi. m. minorskis TqmiT: sxvadasxva ur icxv cixeebs Soris, romlebic Temurma aiRo, arc erTs ar gauwevia iseTi winaaRmdegoba, rogorc alinjam. igi zogierTi SualediT winaaRmdegobas uwevda 14 wlis ganmavlobaSi~.
i. hameri Saraf-ad-dinis cnobebze dayrdnobiT, aRniSnavda, rom alinjis ganTqmuli cixe Temuramde (1386 w.) verc erTma dampyrobelma ver aiRo. Temurma mxolod meoce dRes SeZlo Seupovari damcvelebis winaaRmdegobis gatexa da damcvelni xelSekrulni cixis kedlebidan xramSi gadayares. amasve ambobs mari brosec oRond masTan alinjis aRebis welia 1387.4
Tu zemoT moxmobil cnobebs gaviziarebT, maSin gasagebia, rom Temurma azerbaijanSi pirvelad SeWrisas 1386 wels naxWevanis midamoebSi jelaierebis uZlieresi cixe-simagre alinja aiRo. savaraudoa, Temurma, jerjerobiT ucnob viTarebaSi, es cixe isev dakarga da Zveli mflobeli jelaierebi daepatronenen. imisaTvis, raTa gairkves rodis dakarga Temurma alinja, jer m. broses movusminoT: `1712 w. berZnuli, xolo 1400 w. qristes dabadebidan, Temuri mivida TavrizSi da baRdadis sulTnis, ahmedis Svilis, sulTan Taheris cixe-simagre, alinja daipyro, romelic (Taheri) Zalian mamaci iyo da romelsac naTesaobis mizeziT qarTvelebi uWerdnen mxars. igi 15 weliwads darCa am cixesi magreSi. bolos iZulebuli gaxda gamosuliyo iqidan da iberebTan gaiqca~. yuradRbas iqcevs isic, rom Taheri saqarTvelosTan matrimoni alurad da kavSirebuli yofila, Tumca cnobili ar aris, es kavSiri rodis, ra viTarebaSi da romeli qarTveli didebulis ojaxTan damyarda. magram, rogorc Cans, qarTvelebsa da jalairebs Soris sak maod mWidro urTierToba arsebobda.
sxvadasxva avtorebi alinjis damcvelebis mier TemurisaTvis gaweul winaaRmdegobas sxvadasxva xangrZlivobiT (18, 15, 14 weli) gansazRvraven, magram amjerad amas gadamwyveti mniSvneloba ara aqvs. mTavaria, rom Temurma didi xnis ganmavlobaSi ver SeZlo cixis aReba da mis am warumateblobaSi qarTvelebis xelic eria.
Tu gaviTvaliswinebT im politikur viTarebasac, rac oqros urdos yaenis, ToxTamiSis iranis azerbaijanSi SeWris Sedegad Seiqmna, maSin savsebiT dasaSvebad mimaCnia, vivaraudo, rom alinjis mflobelTan saqarTvelos mefe Bbagrat V-is (1360-1493) urTierToba ufro intensiuri iyo Temuris mier jalairebis pirvelad (1385 w.) damarcxebis Semdeg. xolo rodesac Temuris azerbaijanSi meored SeWris Semdeg misi agresiis saSiSroeba qarTvelebisa da jalaierebisaTvis cxadi Seiqmna, ar aris gamoricxuli, rom isini SeTanxmdnen erTiani ZaliT moexdinaT am mniSvnelovani strategiuli punqtis (igi saqarTvelosaken momaval saqaravno gzaze mdebareobda) _ alinjis dacva.
Temurlengs alinja pirdapiri ieriSiT rom ver auRia, laSqris nawili mis moalyed dautovia, xolo danarCeni somxeTisa da saqarT velosken dauZravs. rogorc cnobilia, Temuri saqarTveloSi pirvelad 1386 wels SemoiWra. maSasadame, alinjis alyaSi moqcevac amave wels unda momxdariyo, rasac m. broses mier miTiTebuli 15 weli marTlac emTxveva (1401-1386=15).
sparsuli wyaroebis mixedviT, Temurlengma alinjis cixes mraval ricxovani moalyeebi dauyena. alya mravali weli gagrZelda.
vfiqrob, cxadia, rom qarTvelebi alinjasTan ufro didi xnis winaT dakavSirebulni iyvnen, vidre dReisaTvis cnobilia. rodesac batoniSvilma miranSahma alinjis cixes maRali kedeli Semoavlo da cixeSi veRarc veravin Sedioda da verc gamodioda, giorgi mefem ganizraxa batoniSvili Taheri cixidan gamoeyvana da mecixovneebi sursaT-sanovagiT moemaragebina. am sakmaod rTuli amocanis gadasawyvetad mefe giorgim mTeli saqarTvelos samxedro Zalis mobilizeba moaxdina da Crdilo kavkasiidan mTielebic gadmoiyvana. Mefe giorgis jarma imarjva da alinjis cixidan Taheri gamoiyvana, mecixovneebs sursaTi da iaraRi dautova, garnizoni gaaZliera da misi meTauroba sam qarTvel aznaurs Caabara, arezispireTi moarbia da didi nadavliTa da TaheriT dabrunda.
sarwmunod meCveneba d. niniZis mosazreba, rom qarTvelebis es gamarjveba 1396 wels moxda, ris aRsaniSnavad amave wels moiWra giorgi mefisa da ahmad jalaieris saxelze moneta. `jalaierebTan mokavSireobas, erTi SexedviT, saqarTvelosaTvis TiTqos didi mniSvneloba ar hqonda, magram giorgi mefe SorsmWvreteli politikosi iyo da momavalze fiqrobda. momavalSi ki Taheri saukeTeso kandidati iqneboda jalairTa samefo taztze, romlis mokavSireoba fasdaudebel samsaxurs gauwevda saqarTvelos Temuris memkvidreebTan omSi~. sxvaTaSoris alinjis Zlier SeWirvebulma damcvelebma kidev sTxoves giorgi mefes daxmareba. mas Txovnis dakmayofileba ganuzraxavs kidec, magram Temuris jari saqarTvelos moadga da, ra Tqma unda, ganzraxvaze xeli aiRo. alinja daeca 1401 wels.
Temuris sicocxleSi da misi gardacvalebis Semdeg, saqarTvelos sagareo urTierTobis Sesaxeb ramdenime cnoba rui gonsales de klavixom dagvitova. igi Tavis dRiurebSi saqarTvelosa da mis mefes pirvelad maSin axsenebs, rodesac mogviTxrobs md. araqsze mdebare didi qalaqis kalmarinis Sesaxeb. rogorc varaudoben, es unda iyos qalaqi surmari.
am qalaqis midamoebis aRweris Semdeg klavixo mogviTxrobs, rom es qalaqi mis misvlamde rva wliT adre oqros urdos yaens ToxTamiSs auRia. klavixos adgilobrivi mcxovreblebisagan gaugia, rom ToxTamiSma brZoliT qalaqs ver sZlia, magram mosaxleo bam mas mainc SesTvaza wli uri xarkis gadaxda. ToxTamiSi am winadadebiT TiTqos kmayofili darCa da damatebiT qalaqis damcveli jaris naxevari moiTxova, raTa saqarTveloSi mefe sorsos (რეისორსო) winaaRmdeg gaelaSqra5.
ToxTamiSs saqarTvelos dalaSqvra, SeiZleba, marTlac ganzraxuli hqonda, magram Tu amis ganxorcielebaSi mas raimem xeli SeuSala, es Temurlengis mis winaaRmdeg wamosvla da dadevneba unda yofiliyo. rogorc cnobilia, ToxTamiSi TemurlengTan Sejaxebis SiSiT ukan, ulusSi gabrunda. magram, sinamdvileSi, saqme gvaqvs sul sxva viTarebasTan. exeboda ra ToxTamiSis iranis azerbaijanSi 1385 wlis laSqrobas, iv. javaxiSvilis azriT, oqros urdos mbrZanebeli kavkasionis gadmo sasvlelebs saqarTvelos mTavrobasTan SeTanxmebis gareSe ver gadmolaxavda da, maSasadame, saqarTvelo da oqros urdo mokavSireebi iqnebodnen. Temurlengis kavkasiaSi SemoWris umTavresi mizezi gadmosasvlelebis Caketva unda yofiliyo.6
savsebiT sworia iv. javaxiSvilis ნაTqvami, Cemi mxriv mxolod imas davamateb, rom saqarTvelosa da oqros urdos kavSiri Temurlengis mTeli sicocxlis ganmavlobaSi grZeldeboda, razec qvemoT iTqmeva.
rodesac klavixo, yarabRis velze dabanakebuli omar mirzas laSqarSi momxdar areulobaze mogviTxrobs, rac erT-erTi didebulis omar mirzaze Tavdasxmis mcdelobas gamouwvevia, ambobs: `... urdoSi xma gavarda, ambobdnen, edigei da TaTreTis imperatori da mefe giorgi Tavs dagvesxneno~. es ki imaze metyvelebs, rom TurqmanebSi, giorgi VII cnobili iyo, rogorc edigeis7 mokavSire. Tu saqarTvelo-oqros urdos mokavSireobas gaviziarebT, maSin ToxTamiSis muqara saqarTvelos mimarT qalaqis damcvelTa mosatyuebel fandad unda miviCnioT.
ToxTamiSis mier kalmarunis alya, rogorc klavixo gadmogvcems, adgilobrivi mosaxleobisagan gagonili hqonda da amitom Znelia dadgena, ras gulisxmobda igi, roca ambobda _ es ambavi rva wlis wi naT moxdao. klavixo kalmarins 1404 wlis 29 maiss miadga. mis mier moTxrobili ambavi Tu 8 wlis winaT moxda, maSin 1396 weli unda yofiliyo. SesaZlebelia, mas ToxTamiSis 1394 wels azerbaijanSi meore laSqroba hqonda mxedvelobaSi. marTalia, arc es weli emTxveva zustad mis navaraudev wels, magram Se darebiT axlos ki aris. es meore laSqroba rom hqonda mxedvelobaSi, klavixo amitom unda asaxelebdes saqarTvelos mefed giorgi VII-s (1393-1407).
rodesac klavixo sxva adgilas Txrobas iwyebs saqarTvelos mefis mier mowyobili laSqrobis Sesaxeb, zedmetadac ki miiCnia mefis saxelis xseneba, radgan igi mkiTxvelisaTvis ukve nacnobad miiCnia da aRiSna: `am dros wamovida saqarTvelos mefe, romlis Sesaxeb ukve moismineT~. rogorc is Semdeg ambobs, muslimanebSi didi SiSi da dabneuloba gansakuTrebiT imas gamouwvevia, rom qristianebs mahmadianebze gaumarjviaT. Klavixo iqve iZleva imis ganmartebas, Tu rad uwodeben muslimanebi qristianebs urjuloebs da ra igulisxmeba am saxelwodebaSi. im droisaTvis, rogorc cnobilia, arc amierkavkasiaSi da arc mis mezoblad sxva qristiani mefe, romelsac orso anu giorgi erqva da Tanac qristiani iyo, sxva aravin iyo, Tu ara mefe giorgi VII.
klavixom Tavis mogzauroba dRiurebis saxiT aRwera. unda aRiniSnos, rom dRiurebi Zalian mdidari da mravalferovania espaneTidan samaryandisaken mogzaurobis periodSi, xolo ukan, samaryandidan espaneTSi dabrunebisas, maTSi gadmocemulia mxolod is mniSvnelovani ambebi, rac im droisaTvis moxda.
klavixosa da mis Tanamgzavrebs Temurlengis gardacvalebis ambavma azerbaijanSi miuswro. am cnobam didi mRelvareba gamoiwvia, ris gamo kas tilielebs, TavianTi survilis sawinaaRmdegod, 6 Tve da 3 kvira (1405 wlis 1 Tebervlidan 22 agvistomde) TavrizSi darCena mouxdaT.
klavixos Tavrizul CanawerebSi aris saqarTvelos mefe giorgi VII-is Sesaxeb erTi sayuradRebo cnoba, romelic naTels hfens am dauRalavi da Seupovari mefis moRvaweobis erT epizods klavixo mogviTxrobs, rom `saqarTvelos mefe, romlis Sesaxeb ukve moismineT, SeiWra yarsisa da arzrumis miwebze, romlebic did არმენიაშია, mivida Tavrizamde, gaZarcva da gadawva mravali sofeli da dasaxlebuli punqti. iseTi didi SiSi gamoiwvia, rom Tavrizeli muslimanebi fiqrobdnen, rom batoni omar mirza movidoda, magram man es ar gaakeTa. samagierod Tavis cnobil Zvel rainds, romelsac omar Tobani erqva, ubrZana xuTi aTasi mxedriT wasuliyo da saqarTvelos mefe am mxaris sazRvrebidan ganedevna. masTan SeerTeba ubrZana Tavrizisa da sxva mxareebis erTgul jarebs. sul Seikriba daaxloebiT, TxuTmeti aTasi mxedari. maT didi siswrafiT gaiares es qalaqi Tavrizi da gaCerdnen ala-TaRis velTan, romelic did somxeTSia. mefe giorgim, gaigo ra amis Sesaxeb, movida xuTi aTasi mxedriT, erT Rames Tavs daesxa maT, daamarcxa, mravali maTgani amowyvita da imaT, vinc gadarCnen, Tavi Seafares Tavrizs~.
klavixos dRiurebi saSualebas gvaZlevs vTqvaT, rom qarTveli mefis mier Tavrizis midamoebis dalaSqvra moxda 1405 wlis 19 maisidan 11 ivlisamde periodSi8. saqarTvelos mxedrobis mier msgavsi samxedro operaciis Sesaxeb arc erTi qarTuli cnoba ar gagvaCnia, magram klavixos monaTxrobs erTgvarad exmaureba XV saukunis sparsulenovani istorikosi mirxondi (1433-1498), romelic gvamcnobs: `movida cnoba, rom qarTvelebma simamacis fexi sazRvars gadmoabijes, Tavs daesxnen ganjasa da naxWevans da xalxis qoneba da sisxli xelyves. basTan jagirma, ardebilis gamoCenilma mbrZanebelma da moxeleebma ajanyebis gamo saswrafod Seafares Tavi Sirvanis Seix ibrahim valisTan... omar mirzam brZana, rom omar Tobani, barlas Tuqali da sxva mxedarTmTavrebi maRzulangurjad wodebuli adgilis dasacavad wasuliyvnen...
r. kiknaZis azriT, mirxondis mier aRwerili ambavi 1405 wlis zafxulSi moxda. amgvarad klavixos da mirxondis cnoba drois mixedviT erTmaneTs emTxveva (klavixosTan 1405 w. 19 maisidan 11 ivlisamde, mirxondTan 1405 w. zafxuli), magram mgonia, mirxondis cnobis kidev ufro dazusteba SeiZleba. Tu am ori avtoris monaTxrobs CavukvirdebiT, naTeli gaxdeba, rom laparakia or sxvadasxva laSqrobaze, romlebic giorgi VII-m Temuris sikvdilis Semdeg moawyo.
amis Tqmis safuZvels pirvel rigSi gvaZlevs aRwerili laSqrobebis sxvadasxva mimarTuleba; rac Seexeba omar Tobans, romelsac orive avtori mTavar sardlad asaxelebs, SeiZleba iTqvas Semdegi: omar Tobani Temuris momxreTa im mcirericxovan jgufSi iyo, romelmac xeli Seuwyo mis aRzevebas. igi Temurs emsaxureboda mTeli sicocxlis ganmavlobaSi da misi TanamebrZolic iyo. igi uSualod monawileobda Temuris sxvadasxva laSqrobaSi, misi gardacvalebis Semdeg ki mis STamomavalTa samsaxurSi darCa. amitom gasakviri ar aris, rom giorgi VII-is winaaRmdeg gagzavnili laSqris meTaurad, Tundac orjer, omar Tobani yofiliyo. arc is aris gasakviri da sruliad dasaSvebia, rom orive wyaroSi naTqvamia mis damarcxebaze.
yuradReba unda mieqces kidev erT, Tumca naklebmniSvnelovan garemoebas, magram mainc: klavixo jaris sardlad mxolod omar Tobans as axelebs, mirxondi ki ambobs: omar mirzam `omar Tobani, barlas Tuqali da sxva mxedarTmTavrebi~ gagzavnao. dasaxelebul meTaurebs, rom klavixos mier aRweril laSqrobaSi monawileoba erTad mieRoT, maSin isic orives daasaxelebda, radgan igi mirxondze naklebad ki ara, SeiZleba ukeTac icnobda maSindeli iranis politikur da samxedro mdgomareobas, Tundac imitom, rom klavixo uSualo damkvirvebeli iyo, mirxondi ki winamorbedTa cnobebs emyareboda.
Cemi azriT, xsenebul or cnobaSi or sxvadasxva dros mowyobil laSqrobas Tu vigulisxmebT, maSin pirvel momxdar faqtad klavixos monaTxrobi unda CaiTvalos. ცnoba qarTvelebis laSqrobis Sesaxeb klavixos CarTuli aqvs omar mirzas mamisa da Zmis winaaRmdeg brZolisa da intrigebis Sesaxeb sakmaod detalur moTxrobaSi.
upiratesoba klavixos cnobas imitom unda mieniWos, rom igi Tavis dRiurebSi ar axsenebs ahmad jalairsa da yaraiusufs, romlebic erTad moqmedebdnen. klavixo, romelic misi drois iranSi, azerbaijansa da somxeTSi mimdinare politikuri ambebisa da maTSi moqmedi mTavari moqmedi pirebis Sesaxeb SesaSur codnas amJRavnebs, ar SeiZleboda mxedvelobidan gamorCenoda ahmad jelairisa da yara-iusufis saqmianoba. amitom safuZveli gvaqvs vifiqroT, rom kastilielis TavrizSi yofnisas isini as parezze jer ar Candnen. somexi istorikosi Toma mewobeli aRniSnavs, rom yara-iusufi somxeTsa da azerbaijanSi 1395 wlidan 1406 wlamde ar gamoCenilao.
am saintereso sakiTxis garkvevaSi dagvexmareba mirxondi, romelic qarTvelTa laSqrobas, ahmed jelairis egviptidan wamosvlas da mis mier baRdadis aRebas erTdroulad gadmogvcems. igi wers: `cnoba movida, rom sulTani ahmedi misreTidan (egvipte) dabrunda da baRdadi daipyro... omar mirzam brZana, rom omar Tobani, barkas Tuqali da sxva mxedarTmTavrebi maRzulangurjad wodebuli adgilis dasacavad wasuliyvnen. amir sunjaki ki uricxvi jaris erTi nawiliT baRdadSi gag zavna, raTa is vilaieTi sulTnisaTvis waerTmia~.
zemoTqmuls Tu gaviTvaliswinebT, gamodis, rom mirxondis mier aRwerili epizodi _ qarTvelebis laSqroba da yara-iusufisa da ahmed jelairis mier baRdadis aReba _ moxda 1406 wlis ivnisSi, klavixo, romelic 1406 wlis martSi ukve kastiliaSi imyofeboda, ra Tqma unda, Tavis dRiurebSi veRar Seitanda iseT rames, romelic azerbaijansa da somxeTSi misi kastiliaSi dabrunebis Semdeg moxda.
vfiqrob, axla ukve darwmunebiT SeiZleba iTqvas, rom klavixo da mirxondi mefe giorgi VII-is mier Turqmanebis winaaRmdeg mowyobil or sxvadasxva laSqrobaze gadmogvcemen an mirxondma erTmaneTSi auria sxvadasxva dros momxdari ambebi.
radgan klavixos gadmocema sxva werilobiTi wyaroebiT ar dasturdeba, amitom i. sreznevski giorgi VII-is meTaurobiT mowyobil laSqrobas saeWvod miiCnevda da varauds gamosTqvamda, klavixom giorgis xom ar miawera Turqmen yara-iusufis namoqmedario. rogorc davrwmundebiT, i. Sreznevskis mier gamoTqmuli eWvi naCqarevi iyo. ras eyrdnoboda igi, roca ambobda, rom aseT laSqroba yara-iusufma moawyoo? yara-iusufi cnobilia, rogorc Temurlengis erT-erTi Seupovari mowinaaRmdege. igi iyo SavbatknianTa (yara-yoinlu) gaerTianebuli tomebis amira, warmoSobiT baharlus tomidan. man, ahmed jelaiarTan erTad, Te murisagan devnilma, jer osmaleTis sulTan baiazid I-s Seafara Tavi9, xolo Temuris mier baiazidis damarcxebis Semdeg, egvipteSi gaiqca. Temuris moTxovniT, egviptis sulTanma farajma igi Seipyro, ramdenime xans tyveobaSi hyavda da TemurisaTvis gadacemas apirebda kidec, magram Temuris sikvdilma ixsna. sulTanma yara-iusufi gaaTavisufla da Tavisuflad moqmedebis saSualeba misca. yara-iusufma Seagrova aTasi mxedari da azerbaijanisaken wavida.
Temurlengi gardaicvala 1405 wlis 18 Tebervals q. otraraSi, xolo zemoaRniSnuli laSqroba unda momxdariyo 1405 wlis 19 maissa da 11 ivliss Soris. am droisaTvis ki yara-iusufi klavixos mier dasaxelebul adgilamde ver mividoda, jer erTi, imitom rom cnoba Temurlengis sikvdilis Sesaxeb Sua aziidan egviptemde daigvianebda da, meorec, yara-iusufisaTvis saWiro iqneboda garkveuli dro jaris Sesakrebad. maSin yovelive amis gakeTeba drois mcire monakveTSi praqtikulad SeuZlebeli iyo.
i. petruSevkis mixedviT, siriidan wamosulma `ahmedma da yara-iusufma 1406 wlis ivnisSi aiRes baRdadi da amis Semdeg dauyovnebliv daiZrnen samxreT azerbaijanisaken. 1406 wlis ivlisis dasasruls orive mokavSire Tavrizs miuaxlovda~.
amgvarad qarTvelTa laSqroba Sedga 1405 wlis zafxulSi, xolo ahmed jalairisa da yara-iusufisa ki 1406 wlis zafxulSi.@
cnobilia, rogor Seupovar brZolas awarmoebda qarTveli xalxi giorgi VII-is meTaurobiT dampyrobTa winaaRmdeg jer kidev Temurlengis sicocxleSi.
1403 wels mefe giorgisa da Temurlengs Soris dadebuli zaviT, saqarTvelo Turqmanebis vasalur mdgomareobaSi rCeboda. zavis dadebis Semdeg Temurs saqarTvelo aRar daulaSqravs, igi CineTis das apyrobad wavida. giorgi mefes saSualeba mieca qveyanaSi mSvidoba daemyarebina, Zalebi moekriba da Tvalyuri edevnebina amierkavkasiasa da axlo aRmosavleTSi mimdinare movlenebisaTvis. rogorc Cans mefe giorgim vi Tareba xelsayrelad CaTvala da qveynis mtrisagn gawmendas da erTianobis aRdgenas Seudga.
Temuris sikvdilis Semdeg imperiaSi dawyebul gamaTavisuflebel moZraobas mis memkvidreebs Soris pirvelobisaTvis brZola daerTo, ramac giorgi mefes aqtiuri sagareo politikis gatarebis saSualeba misca. Man gaiTvaliswina azerbaijanSi dawyebuli saxalxo moZraobis mniSvneloba saqarTvelosaTvis da maSinve, 1405 dasawyisSi, moZraobis meTaurs SirvanSah ibrahims daukavSirda. qarTvelma mefem ibrahimTan kavSiri imiTic ganamtkica, rom mas gadasca cota xnis win dapyrobili ganja da naxWevani.
yovelive zemoaRniSnulis Semdeg, SeiZleba iTqvas, rom giorgi mefes sworad Seufasebia omar Tobanis morCilebaSi arsebul teritoriaze Seqmnili viTareba. omar mirzam yarabaRSi gaigo Tavisi papis sikvdili. man ganizraxa dawyebuli areulobiT esargebla da Tavisi mamis _ miran-Sahis da ufrosi Zmis _ abubeqris devna daiwyo. man Zma daatyveva da sulTaniis sapyrobileSi Caagdo, mama ki ver moixelTa. miran-Sahis Tavisufleba omaris mdgomareobas aryevda. amiT iyo gamowveuli, rom man monawileoba ar miiRo mis samflobeloebSi SeWrili qarTvelebis winaaRmdeg brZolaSi. Imis fiqric SeiZleba, rom igi qarTvelTa Tavdasxmas SedarebiT nakleb mniSvnelobas aniWebda, vidre sakuTari mamis datyvevebas.
aRwerili viTareba saSualebas aZlevda mefe giorgis mcire jariT SeWriliyo gandgomili ivane aTabagis samflobeloSi, daemorCilebina igi da laSqroba gaegrZelebina mezobel teritoriebze, miT umetes, rom am droisaTvis saqarTvelos arc samxreTiT mosazRvre olqebSi da arc Tvrizis midamoebSi Turqmanebs seriozuli samxedro Zala ar hyavdaT.
mainc, laSqrobis mTavari mizani saaTabagos Semomtkiceba unda yofiliyo da ai ratom: mesxeTis mflobeli ivane aTabagi mefe giorgis gadaudga 1402 wels da konstantine batoniSvilTan, mefis ZmasTan, erTad Temurlengs miemxro.
Temuris saqarTveloSi bolo laSqrobis dros isini mtris mxares iyvnen. saqarTvelos samxreTi sazRvrisa da qveynis gulisaken mimavali gzis dacvas didi mniSvneloba hqonda mefis Semdgomi moqmedebisaTvis. giorgis Semdgom moqmedebad SeiZleba CaiTvalos yarsisa da naxWevanis aReba, rasac mirxondi gadmogvcems.
giorgi VII-is saqarTvelos politikuri gaZlierebisaTvis brZolis miuxedavad, Temuris laSqrobebma qveyanas iseTi daRi daasva, rom misi gamosworeba SeuZlebeli iyo. saqarTvelos saxelmwifos samflobeloebi teritoriulad Semcirda. odesRac megobruli Tu ymadnafici mezoblebis adgilas saqarTvelosadmi mtrulad ganwyobili Temuridebi gabatondnen.
Temuridebis gandevnidan didi xani ar iyo gasuli, rom saqarTvelos axali mteri gamouCnda yara-yoiunlus (SavbatkninTa) Turqmanebis saxiT. maTTan brZolaSi daiRupnen mefeebi _ giorgi VII (1407 w.) da konstantine (1412 w.).
შენიშვნები
1. hans Siltbergeri daibada 1380 wels bavariaSi, fraizingis maxloblad. 1394 wlidan iyo raind raixartingenis saWurvelT-mtvirTveli. 1396 nikopolTan brZolaSi tyved Cauvarda osmalebs. is sulTnis monad aqcies. Temuris tyveobaSi aRmoCnda mis mier angorasTan osmalebis damarcxebis (1402 w. 20 ivlisi) Semdeg. Temuris sikvdilis Semdeg Temuridebis samsaxurSi iyo. samegreloSi yofnis dros igi sxva oTx qristianTan erTad gaiqca da baTumis midamoebidan frangebis gems gahyva. sabolood, 1427 wels, didi Tav gadasavlebis Semdeg, is samSobloSi dabrunda. Siltbergerma Tavisi Tavgadasavali aRwera `mogzaurobis wignSi~.
2. alinja rom saimedo TavSesafari da ganZis Sesanaxi adgili iyo, amis Sesaxeb Siltbergeris mier gadmocemuli ambavi Zalian gadaWarbebuli ar unda iyos. am cixeSi auracxeli simdidre sxva drosac yofila daculi.
3.  Saraf ad-dinis mixedviT, Temuris laSqars pirveli Setevisas alinjis cixis gareT arsebuli simagreebi auRia, damcvelebi ki citadelSi gamagrebulan.
4. aRmosavleli avtorebis gavleniT, m. brose 1387 wels miiCnevs Temuris mier azerbaijanis dapyrobis drod, rac sinamdvileSi 1386 wels moxda.
5. vfiqrob, saqarTvelosTan dakavSirebuli saxelebis damaxinjeba gamomcemlis mier xelnaweris mcdarad amokiTxvis Sedegia. amitom vxedavT qarTvelTa mefis, saqarT velos da qarTvelebis saxelTa Semdeg formebs: giorgi VII _ sorso-soroso-sordo-gorgo, saqarTvelo _ jurgania-gurgania, qarTveelebi _ grieganos.
6. sreznevskis samarTliani SeniSvniT kllavixos mier gadmocemuli ambavi rva wlis winaT ki ara, 18 wlis winaT, e.i. 1386 wels moxda. am wels ToxTamiSi pirvelad SeiWra azerbaijansa da somxeTSi.
7. edigei, TeTrbatknianTa amira, pirvel xanebSi Temurs ToxTamiSis winaaRmdeg exmareboda. ToxTamiSis ganadgurebis Semdeg (1391 w.) Temurs uRalata. 1397 wlidan oqros urdos mbrZanebeli gaxda da Temuris dauZinebel mtrad gadaiqca.
8. 19 maiss omar mirzam kastilielebs werili gaugzavna, romelSic bodiSs ixdida misive brZanebiT Tavrizis xelisufalTa mier elCobisaTvis qonebis CamorT mevis gamo. xolo 11 ivliss omar mirzam Tavisi Zmis, abubeqris cixidan gaqcevis ambavi gaigo.
9. sayuradReboa, rom farsadan gorgijaniZe Tavis `istoriaSi~ Temursa da bai azids Soris omis dawyebis erT-erT mizezad am ukanasknelis mier ahmedis Sefarebasa da misi TemurisaTvis gadaucemlobas asaxelebs.

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